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Introduction of the FABER-AMBRA® process in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Second Interim Report
First Interim Report
|Project implementation||FABER-Recycling GmbH, Schlierschied|
|Project specialists||Dipl.-Ing. D. Maak
Dipl.-Ing. C. Pereira
|Project director||Wolfgang Tönges|
|Schlierschied, October 2000|
The Faber Recycling GmbH has been carrying out a pilot project since 01.09.99 to introduce the FABER-AMBRA®-process in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This pilot project is sponsored by the BMBF (sponsorship reg. no. 1481203). The aim of the research project is to test the suitability of the FABER-AMBRA®-process for waste treatment in Rio de Janeiro.
The FABER-AMBRA®-process is a mechanical-biological waste treatment that has been successfully used in the German market for many years. The treatment avoids, to the greatest possible extent, the negative effects in the environment of waste sediment. It can be proven that for many years in Germany during industrial operation, the sediment characteristics were considerably improved, following treatment with the FABER-AMBRA®-process. Gas emissions particularly are reduced in fresh waste from 150 -180 l/kg to less than 1 l/kg. Following build-up of the rotting heap, the waste seepage contains only a relatively low organic capacity. At the Meisenheim plant a BSB5 value of <3 mg/l is documented.
The aim of the Rio research project is to prove the suitability of the FABER-AMBRA®-process under different climatic circumstances and for different waste composition compared to that in Germany. Consequently, a research project was designed by Faber Recycling GmbH and is scientifically supported by the University of Braunschweig, Germany and the University of Rio. The project is sponsored by BMBF (sponsorship reg. no. 1481203).
2. Working plan
The research project commenced on the 01.09.99, according to plan. From the 03.9.99 to 14.10.99 two specialists from Faber Recycling GmbH supervised the commencement of work on the pilot project in Rio de Janeiro. During this period, the homogenising drum was first checked for its suitability. This particular homogenising drum is semi-mechanical and especially acquired for this research project.
The drum was a proven success during test runs. The output from the homogenising drum was of a consistency required for the biological treatment. Complete mixing of the waste took place. The bags were broken down and the waste thoroughly dampened. Pictures 1 and 2 give an impression of how the mobile homogenising drum is filled, together with the removal of the waste following mechanical treatment. In picture 2 the mechanically treated waste can be clearly recognised.
Following the mechanical treatment, the waste was then built up in rotting heaps by use of a wheeled loader. The special construction of the heaps is carried out in the same way as in Germany, using the FABER-AMBRA®-process. The waste is built up to a height of 2 m and covered with a layer of bio-filters. Above this layer, an irrigation system is installed to water the heaps. In picture 3 a completely operational rotting heap can be seen. Picture 4 shows the team involved in building the heap who are both FABER-AMBRA and COMLURB employees.
In February 2000 a further heap was constructed on COMLURB land. The same process was used as in heap 1 and took place from 07.02.2000 to 16.03.2000. The aim of this heap is to prove that in the prevailing rainy season, during February and March, the heaps would operate as expected even in these difficult climatic circumstances. Picture 5 shows a part of the completed heap 2.
3. Scientific results
The individual results of measurements carried out are extensively covered in the reports of the Leichtweiß-Institute of the Technical University of Braunschweig and the COPPE of the UFRJ Rio de Janeiro. Following is a summary of results:
3.1 Mechanical Treatment
With different test runs it was proven that sufficient mixing and humidifying of the waste, together with satisfactory breaking down of the waste bags, had been reached. The addition of water was enabled with a tanker supplied by the COMLURB. Approximately 2 m³ of water was added to the waste with each filling of the homogenising drum. After the mechanical treatment, the output had been prepared for best optimal use for the subsequent biological treatment. This result was the same as that achieved with the industrial mixing and homogenising drum in Meisenheim, Germany.
3.2 Biological Treatment
For the duration of the project, the University of Rio de Janeiro is scientifically supporting the biological treatment. Specific gauges were built into the rotting heap for operational control. These gauges measure the temperature in the heap at regular intervals and gas samples are taken for analysis in the laboratory. These temperature measurements show if the decomposing process in the rotting heap is proceeding according to plan. The heap must have a constant temperature of 50 - 70°C for the decomposing process to take place in the correct way. Fig. 1 - 8 show the temperature readings for heap 1 for measuring points 1 - 8:
The results of the temperature control prove that for the entire duration of the readings taken good temperature development existed. The progress of the temperature lines verify a normal microbiological activity in the heap.
The analysis of the gas composition serves to confirm ventilation of
the heaps. Since the FABER-AMBRA®-process is an aerobic-cell process,
it must be ensured that sufficient oxygen is contained in the heap at
all times. If the effect of the ventilation is not sufficient, then an
anaerobic-cell condition will develop. This can be confirmed if methane
is found on analyse of the gas samples. A sufficient ventilation effect
ensures that a methane volume <1Vol.% exists at all times in the analysed
samples. Methane volume of 1 - 5% show small disturbances in the heap
that are, however, insignificant. Only methane volumes of > 5 Vol.%
which exist over longer periods show malfunctioning of the heap.
The results of the gas analysis are displayed in Fig. 9 - 16.
The test results as shown in Fig. 9 - 16 prove that in heap 1, no methane
was found. Some samples contained small volumes of CO2 which indicates
that appropriate decomposing processes occurred. As long as the oxygen
content at no time sinks significantly below 21 Vol.%, sufficient ventilation
in the heaps is ensured.
In December 99 and in March and June 2000 a sample of the solid matter was taken from the heaps. Each time at least 200 kg sample matter was extracted from the heap. Picture 6 shows the removal of the sample matter.
At this point, it can be pointed out that there was no odour emission
when the samples were taken. The heap was sufficiently damp in all places
and a temperature of 70° C was detected in these areas which is also
confirmed by the operational control of the heap.
The samples were taken on instruction of Dr.-Ing. Münnich of the Leichtweiß-Institute at the Technical University of Braunschweig in the laboratory of COPPE and prepared according to German regulations. These samples were then analysed. Special analyses that could not be undertaken in Rio de Janeiro were run in the Leichtweiß-Institute of the TU Braunschweig.
Fig. 17 shows the progress of the average value of the Eluat analyses for the TOC, CSB and BSB5. Fig.18 displays the results of the analyses for solid matter of ignition reduction of the TOC in solid matter. Fig.19 shows the results of the analyses for parameters AT4 und GB21
The analyses of the solid matter tests show that for the first 9 months correct decomposition has taken place in heap 1. The future German permissible limits of the sediment for mechanical-biological treated waste for the TOC in the Eluat of 250 mg/l, the TOC in solid matter of 18% and the breathing activity of 5 mg O2/g TS were already reached after only 9 months of rotting duration with the FABER-AMBRA®-process.
3.3 Operation of dump simulation reactors
To assess the state of the sediment in waste dumps as well as the assessment
of gas and water emissions, dump simulation reactors (DSR) are used.
In these DSR's the sedimentation condition can be simulated using a stop-motion
Documenting the success of the waste treatment with the FABER-AMBRA®-process is carried out by the University of Rio de Janeiro operating two DSR's. The untreated waste as built up in rotting heaps during mechanical-biological treatment was put into the first DSR in September 1999. At the end of the treatment with the FABER-AMBRA®-process after one year, the waste was removed from the heap and used in a further DSR. With the results then produced, the success of the treatment in relation to the emission potential can be shown. In particular, the parameters for gas production and water seepage which are simulated with the DSR's, are then compared with fresh waste and waste treated with the FABER-AMBRA®-process. In the framework of the scientific support of the pilot project it was intended to fill the first DSR with fresh waste which was also used for the build-up of heap 1. This took place parallel to the build-up of the heap. The waste was placed into a DSR in the COPPE laboratory. Fig. 20 displays the system outline of the DSR model as it was built.
Picture 8 shows the DSR as manufactured in Rio. This DSR stands in a
room with a constant temperature of approx. 30° C. The room temperature
is taken at regular intervals together with the temperature of the waste
in the DSR. Analyses of the water seepage cycle display the emission
potential. The analyses of the water seepage from the DSR mirror the
usual amount of waste water seepage from a normal household waste dump.
Gas production from the waste has not yet commenced. This could possibly
be caused by acidification or because of a DSR that is not yet fully
operational. In this respect, an improvement will be made in the furtherance
of this plan. These problems, as they presently appear, are normal and
also occurred in this scientific field in Germany at commencement of
the use of such DSR's.
3.4 Marking the used waste
For marking the used waste a sorting analysis was carried out, the results of which are also displayed in the enclosed report by COPPE. The resulting analysis shows that the highly organic parts expected at inception of the research project are actually contained in the waste.
In February 2000 a further rotting heap was constructed. The aim of
this heap is to prove that during the prevailing rainy season, in February
and March, in Rio the heaps would operate as expected. Scientific evaluation
for this heap is restricted to its operational control. According to
the results, the expectations for this pilot project have been fully
met so far.
The operational control of the heap has shown that in Brazil, too, successful operation of heaps by use of the FABER-AMBRA®-process could be achieved. For the whole of the duration an orderly environment with a good microbiological activity in the heaps was detected without any anaerobic-cell areas. The treatment result shows through the analyses of the solid matter, that the future regulations for waste deposit in Germany are already achieved after only 9 months rotting duration.
So far, tests on heap 2 have not shown any deviance in its operation, so that here also positive results of further measurements can be expected.
Visitors to the project have repeatedly commented on the positive impression it has made upon them. Amongst these visitors were local representatives of bodies responsible for waste disposal and sewage, and politicians, together with representatives of licensing authorities and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für technische Zusammenarbeit (German association for technical co-operation).
These positive results will contribute to a successful marketing campaign in Brazil.